I can tell you what I would do, but I handle things in a very not-textbook kind of way for myself, so it's not something I can really recommend that other people do, even though it works pretty well for me.
Novorapid lasts around 5 hours for most people (4 for some, 6 for others, and the more you inject the slower it absorbs - you know the drill!). It starts working within 10-15 minutes of when you inject it and it hits its peak level of absorption or peak activity level around 2-3 hours after injection. After that, in the last hour or two, you do still have IOB (insulin on board) but it's weakening. For some people they find their rapid insulin is basically gone after hour 3.
So the textbook way is to wait until 4-5 hours after you injected, and if BGs are still high then, you can take a correction if one is needed. That way you're not stacking insulin on top of insulin, which can cause hypos and just generally makes the appropriate dose harder to calculate (how many units of insulin are still working in my body? how long will they be working? how should I account for them in calculating my next dose?) Personally I often start taking mini-corrections after 2-3 hours and every 2-3 hours as needed, but I don't recommend doing it that way for anyone else. For one, it's dose stacking, which has all the possible complications mentioned above, and for two, it also can cloud whether or not my basal insulin is working appropriately if I'm constantly "topping up" with fast-acting. I'm comfortable with this method for myself though and I get decent results with it so I'll stick with it, but I have 20+ years of experience now using insulin, I'm familiar with how my body tends to react, BG-wise in a lot of different situations, plus I am a T1 with no residual insulin production of my own and no IR. None of those apply in your situation at the moment so I don't think it'd be an appropriate method for you!
Corrections are calculated by a formula: (current BG - target BG)/correction factor. The correction factor is the bit that varies based on your body's needs; it's how many mmol/L of BG that one unit of insulin reduces your BG by. For most T1s at least it's somewhere around 2-3. But it can vary by time of day too just like carb ratios can, and of course it can be whatever your body ultimately needs it to be, which may not be anywhere near 2-3!
So let's say that your BG at 5 hours after the meal was up to 14, your target BG is 6, and your correction factor is 3. This gives you (14-6)/3 or 8/3 or 2.67; rounded up to whole units that means you would have needed 3u as a correction. This does NOT mean, however, that you should have taken 3u more when you first ate the meal, necessarily. Mathematically it seems like it should, but "biology isn't math" as I like to say, so it doesn't always work out that way.
FWIW I think you did a great job with your meal! You were trying a food that you knew might be problematic, and you're still new to bolus insulin so you were cautious about it. That was the right thing to do. This is how you learn! There is a lot to take in and a lot to account for in situations like this. For example, some meals are like the Energizer bunny in terms of the post-meal rise: it keeps going and going and going and... That is to say, although for most people and for most meals the post-meal spike will happen at 1-2 hours out, it doesn't always. Especially if the meal is quite large in terms of volume, or high-carb or high-fat or both compared to what you normally eat, the spike might come much later - 3, 4, 5 hours or more! Pizza is so famous for doing this that this pattern is sometimes referred to as the "pizza phenomenon"! It is notoriously a tricky situation to deal with when dosing meal insulin, something that takes a lot of trial and error to get a feel for and even the most experienced among us don't always get it "right"!
So don't give in to feeling defeated here. You did exactly what you were supposed to do, which is try, observe, and learn from what happens. No one could have done any better! And it doesn't mean that you should never eat that meal again, either. It's a bit of a different ballgame on insulin with regards to eliminating/limiting foods that give you results outside of target. Sure, there are some things that from long experience I know I can never eat and expect good BGs afterwards, so I try to limit those foods most days. But even the most experienced among us have probably a 50/50 chance of getting our dosing such that our numbers are on target afterwards when we're dealing with restaurant meals or even just food someone else has cooked! So out-of-target results are no longer an indictment of the food, they're just a reminder that you "can't win 'em all" when you're dosing insulin in the real world!
I think that I would stick to eating meals that were a bit easier to work with at first. Things you make yourself at home or things that you can measure and count that come with nutrition labels. That is, things where you can be reasonably sure of the carb count to start with. That lets you do the same kinds of trial and error tests and get a feel for what your I:C ratio is. That is, I actually wouldn't be going VLC right now, because it doesn't give you any information to work with that helps you get the hang of your insulin. You've gotta get your ratios worked out and your carb counting down pat before you can expect to have much success with restaurant meals where you have to guesstimate the carbs. By the same token, though, I wouldn't worry too much about having the occasional take-out or treat meal, just know that for now it's not likely that you're going to have any idea what dose you actually need to cover that meal so you might get some wonky results after. Even that is a chance to observe and learn, but you might not be able to do anything with that information right away while you're still getting the hang of everything else.
p.s. I would not have tested more frequently. On injected insulin, we get the chance to adjust/correct every 3-4 hours at most (2 hours on sick days but that's a different story!). So knowing what your BG is every half hour won't be information you can really act on. Taking it every hour can be useful for some things, like learning "oh, this meal peaks a lot later and for a lot longer than what I more typically eat" which can be good to know for next time, but it still doesn't let you intervene any earlier this time. If I'm just wanting to check on my post-meal rise and see whether I need to make any adjustments, I would probably only test at 2h and 4h or something like that, personally. Yes, the true peak of the meal may well be closer to 1h but as a T1 there is often very little I can do about that 1h peak anyway, so the 2-3 hour mark is more interesting for me because that's the peak action of the insulin I took, so if my dosing was off, that's where I'll see it (whereas a 1h peak doesn't say anything to me about the insulin I took, it just says "oh yeah, remember how you don't produce any of your own insulin when you eat food?") and then the 4-5 hour mark when the insulin is finished or nearly so, so I can see where I ended up and if anything remains to be done, like a correction. But that's me! You have to find your own way