Lucy, the first thing you need to know about your garden is whether you have acidic or alkaline soil as this will dictate what you plant. You can buy a cheap testing kit for this but you can also see what your neighbours are growing. If they have rhododendrons and camelias, you will have an acidic soil. If you have an alkaline soil, you can still grow acid loving plants but they will have to be in pots with an ericacious compost that you can buy in DIY stores and garden centres. I am on chalk, which is very alkaline so my acid loving plants such as blueberries and rhododendrons are all in pots.
Sedge says in her post that you are "down south". Whereabouts are you? I live in a small village about ten miles north west of Salisbury and grow several different fruits and vegetables in my large garden.
Are the raspberries summer or autumn fruiting, Lucy? If the latter, they should have all been cut to the ground a couple of months ago. You can still do this now. If they are summer fruiting, however, just cut last years canes down to the ground and tie in the new ones, which will be developing buds. This should normally be done after they have fruited. You will need some wires fixed to the wall, to tie the new canes to. See: http://www.pots2plots.com/Fruit/Growing%20Raspberries.htm
Nothing tastes better than fresh vegetables and the easiest ones to grow are runner or climbing French beans and peas. Regarding the peas, I prefer to grow sugar snap and mange tout varieties. They can be grown in pots with cane supports and many beans and pea plants have beautiful flowers. See: http://www.container-gardening-for-food.com/growing-green-beans.html
Tomatoes and cucumbers can be planted in growbags placed in a sheltered and sunny part of the decking.
My courgettes are started off in the greenhouse and then transferred to a vegetable bed in May after the last frosts. I tried to grow some in large pots last year but they didn't come to anything. When I have been short of space, I have put courgettes in flower beds and still managed a good crop.
You should be able to pick up gardening books from secondhand book stores or even in charity shops. For ten years, I have been a member of the Allotments4All forum. It is not only for those who have an allotment, but is for anyone who has an interest in gardening. The people on there are very helpful regarding any questions asked. The link is: http://www.allotments4all.co.uk/smf/index.php?action=forum
Good luck with your new garden, Lucy. If there is anything that you are not sure about, just send me a pm.