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What Do You Mean by Diabetes Mellitus?


Understanding Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus, commonly referred to as just diabetes, is a chronic disease that occurs when the body cannot regulate the amount of sugar, specifically glucose, in the blood. This malfunction typically arises from issues with insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that facilitates the movement of glucose from the blood into cells where it is used for energy. When insulin function is disrupted, glucose levels can become dangerously high, leading to a range of health problems.

Is Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 or 2 Diabetes?

Diabetes Mellitus encompasses both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

In Type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. As a result, the body is unable to produce insulin. This type of diabetes is often diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood, although it can occur at any age.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

In Type 2 diabetes, the body either doesn’t produce enough insulin or the cells become resistant to the insulin that is produced. This resistance means that glucose isn’t taken up by the cells as efficiently, leading to elevated blood glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes and is often linked with obesity and a sedentary lifestyle.

What are the 4 Types of Diabetes Mellitus?

Beyond Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, two additional forms are worth noting: Gestational Diabetes and Prediabetes.

Gestational Diabetes

This form of diabetes occurs in pregnant women who have never had diabetes before but who have high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. It usually resolves after childbirth, but those who have had gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.


Prediabetes is a condition where blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. Without intervention, prediabetes is likely to progress to type 2 diabetes.

What Happens to a Person with Diabetes Mellitus?

When a person has diabetes mellitus, their body cannot regulate blood sugar levels appropriately. Over time, high blood sugar levels can damage nerves and blood vessels, leading to complications like heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve damage.

Remember, uncontrolled diabetes can lead to serious complications. Early detection and management can significantly lower the risk of developing these complications.

What’s the Difference Between Diabetes and Diabetes Mellitus?

The terms “diabetes” and “diabetes mellitus” are often used interchangeably. Diabetes mellitus is the full name of the disease, while diabetes is the abbreviated term. There is another form of diabetes, known as diabetes insipidus, which is quite different and is associated with kidney-related issues and water balance in the body. However, when most people refer to diabetes, they mean diabetes mellitus.

What Causes Diabetes Mellitus?

The causes of diabetes mellitus are different for each type:

  • Type 1 diabetes is primarily caused by an autoimmune reaction where the body’s immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.
  • Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of genetics and lifestyle factors. Being overweight or obese increases the risk significantly.
  • Gestational diabetes is caused by hormonal changes during pregnancy that make the body less responsive to insulin.

How do you Manage Diabetes Mellitus?

Managing diabetes mellitus involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medication, and regular monitoring of blood glucose levels.

Lifestyle Changes

Lifestyle changes are crucial in managing diabetes. This often includes:

  • Healthy Eating: A balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains can help control blood sugar levels.
  • Physical Activity: Regular exercise can help maintain a healthy weight and lower blood sugar levels.
  • Weight Management: For those with Type 2 diabetes, weight loss may be recommended.

Medication and Insulin Therapy

Depending on the type of diabetes, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. These medications work in several ways – some lower the liver’s glucose production, some increase insulin production, while others improve the effectiveness of insulin.

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Regular blood glucose monitoring is essential for people with diabetes to ensure their blood sugar levels stay within a target range. The frequency of testing varies based on the type and severity of diabetes.

Regular Medical Checkups

Routine checkups and screenings can catch potential complications early. These typically include eye exams, foot exams, and screenings for other diabetes-related complications.

Consult your healthcare provider for the best diabetes management plan for you. Remember, managing diabetes requires a lifelong commitment. Your healthcare team can provide the support and expertise you need, but ultimately, the daily care decisions are up to you.


Understanding diabetes mellitus is essential to managing the condition and preventing its potentially serious complications. While living with diabetes can be challenging, with the right education, resources, and support, individuals with diabetes can lead a healthy and fulfilling life. Being informed about what diabetes mellitus is and how it affects the body is the first step towards effective management.

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